//foo.c中
int a = 1;

//bar.c中
int a;
int main() {
printf("%d\n",a);
}

However, that is effectively a language extension. Strictly conforming ISO C programs cannot define a name more than once.

As @litb points out here, and as stated in my answer to the cross-referenced question, using multiple definitions for a global variable leads to undefined behaviour, which is the standard's way of saying "anything could happen". One of the things that can happen is that the program behaves as you expect; and J.5.11 says, approximately, "you might be lucky more often than you deserve". But a program that relies on multiple definitions of an extern variable - with or without the explicit 'extern' keyword - is not a strictly conforming program and not guaranteed to work everywhere. Equivalently: it contains a bug which may or may not show itself.

### 这两种方式在文件的表述中是否有些不同的？

With some (indeed, many) C compilers, you can get away with what's called a 'common' definition of a variable too. 'Common', here, refers to a technique used in Fortran for sharing variables between source files, using a (possibly named) COMMON block. What happens here is that each of a number of files provides a tentative definition of the variable. As long as no more than one file provides an initialized definition, then the various files end up sharing a common single definition of the variable:

PS：我在WSL中实验的时候发现readelf -s得到的结果，不会出现，不知道是什么原因。在Linux下重新尝试了下，输出的结果是正常的（就是上图）。

### 如何正确的使用extern关键字

1. 在头文件中带有extern关键词来声明(declaration)变量.
2. 在需要这个变量的.c文件中引用这个头文件
3. 在正式定义这个变量的.c文件中也需要引用这个头文件
如下：

file3.h

extern int global_variable;  /* Declaration of the variable */

file1.c

#include "file3.h"  /* Declaration made available here */
#include "prog1.h"  /* Function declarations */

/* Variable defined here */
int global_variable = 37;    /* Definition checked against declaration */

int increment(void) { return global_variable++; }

file2.c

#include "file3.h"
#include "prog1.h"
#include <stdio.h>

void use_it(void)
{
printf("Global variable: %d\n", global_variable++);
}

## 发送评论编辑评论

|´・ω・)ノ
ヾ(≧∇≦*)ゝ
(☆ω☆)
（╯‵□′）╯︵┴─┴
￣﹃￣
(/ω＼)
∠( ᐛ 」∠)＿
(๑•̀ㅁ•́ฅ)
→_→
୧(๑•̀⌄•́๑)૭
٩(ˊᗜˋ*)و
(ノ°ο°)ノ
(´இ皿இ｀)
⌇●﹏●⌇
(ฅ´ω`ฅ)
(╯°A°)╯︵○○○
φ(￣∇￣o)
ヾ(´･ ･｀｡)ノ"
( ง ᵒ̌皿ᵒ̌)ง⁼³₌₃
(ó﹏ò｡)
Σ(っ °Д °;)っ
( ,,´･ω･)ﾉ"(´っω･｀｡)
╮(╯▽╰)╭
o(*////▽////*)q
＞﹏＜
( ๑´•ω•) "(ㆆᴗㆆ)

Emoji